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Basketball and its rules

 Basketball and its rules

Basketball was invented in search of an indoor game, which would provide full fitness.

 Dr. James Naismith, a Canadian physical instructor, wrote the ground rules for the

 game after many ideas were initially rejected, at a YMCA training school. This game

 was first officially played on January 20, 1892, at the YMCA Gymnasium, Springfield

 College. Women started playing basketball in 1892, at Smith College, and different

 sets of rules were established for them.

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It is a team sport where two teams, consisting of nine members each, throw a ball into

 an opponent's ten-foot-high basket in order to get a score. While a member of the

 team is aiming for the basket, a member of the other team prevents it. The team with

 the highest score wins the game. The ball is dribbled and carried forward. In

 competitive basketball variants, there are many regulations, and ball handling is

 restricted. Less regulated versions have been developed for recreational purposes and

 in some countries, this game is considered a spectator sport.

Initially, a soccer ball was used in basketball, after which a maroon-colored ball was

 introduced. But to increase the visibility of the ball for players and spectators, the

 color was changed to orange, in the 1950s by Tony Hinkle. Initially, dribbling was not

 part of the game. It was included in the game in the 1950s.

Different versions have different rules and time limits. According to the NBA, some of

 the rules have been discussed here. The basketball court must measure 94 X 50 feet.

 There should be baskets at opposite ends of the court. The ground is either wooden or

 cement. The ten foot high basket is made of a steel rim with an attached net. A score,

 also called a shot, counts as two points or three points when aimed from a distance of

 7.24 meters. The game is divided into four quarters each with a time limit of twelve


A fifteen minute break is allowed after the first two quarters and between each

 quarter there is a two minute break. In the third quarter, the two teams exchange

 their baskets. At a time, five members of each team are present on the field. It is

 permitted to have up to seven substitutes. Besides the coach, assistant coaches,

 statisticians, managers, coaches, and doctors assist a team. Other equipments, other

 than the ball, required during the game are the scoreboard, score sheets, clocks,

 stopwatches, whistles and alternating possession arrows.

Both the male player and the female player must wear shorts and a jersey with a clear

 number printed on the front and back. High-top sneakers can be worn to provide

 additional ankle support. Sometimes the coach may request clock stops between

 games if he wants to discuss something important with his team members. Usually,

 three referees monitor the match. Other things like timing, individual or team fouls,

 scoring, team possession arrow, shot clock, and player substitutions are taken care of

 by table officials.

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Over time, various positions have been developed in basketball. At the start, there was

 one guard, two attackers and two centers or two guards, two attackers and a center.

 Later, playmaker, shooting guard, small forward, power forward and center positions

 were added.

Actions that lead to violations are double dribbling, moving and carrying the ball, and

 the shot clock. A foul is illegal physical contact with members of the opposing team,

 which would cause them discomfort.

Other variations of professional basketball are wheelchair basketball for the

 physically handicapped, water basketball to be played in a swimming pool, beach

 basketball which has very little or no regulation, play on the half court which has only

 one basket and the street ball and one-on-one which has two players and a smaller


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